Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2021

top 10 programming languages

One of the most important skills one can learn in today’s world is computer programming. Computers have entered into every house and every business. As computers and their uses keep rising, it has become quite impossible to imagine a world without them. The only reason you’re reading this article is because someone wrote and uploaded it via a computer. Just as we can’t operate without computers, computers can’t operate without programming languages. There are a lot of different languages available with different applications. And for every beginner, or someone experienced looking for a new skill to add to their arsenal, the question is, “What programming languages should I learn in 2021?”. We are here to answer that question, let us take a look at best Programming Languages to learn in 2021 for a job and for future prospects:


1.Python

Developed in the 1990’s, no one ever thought that Python would become the most popular programming language one day. Considering all well-recognized rankings and industry trends, Python programming language is the number one language overall. It’s main use cases are Data Science, Data Analytics, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, Enterprise Application, Web Development. 

It’s one of the most easiest language to learn and is very suitable for beginners. It also has an ever expanding community to provide support for the users. Creating and using classes and objects is easy thanks to OOP characteristics. It has extensive library support, focuses on code readability, has the ability to scale even the most complex applications and provides support for a multitude of platforms and systems. It has a very promising future and job opportunities. According to Indeed, python programming language has the most jobs available in the U.S. as well as the highest range of salary.


2.JavaScript

Developed in 1995, developers often criticized JS for its lack of features and poor language designs in its early days. But today JavaScript has evolved into a multi-paradigm, high-level, dynamic programming language. Its first breakthrough came inn 2009 when cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment Node.js was released and enabled JavaScript to run on Server Side. It got a further boost when Google released a JavaScript based Web development framework AngularJS.

Today, JavaScript is one of the most widely used programming languages in the world and runs on virtually everywhere:  Mobile Devices, Browsers, Servers, Cloud, Containers, Micro-controllers etc. JavaScript promises you many add-on’s, such as Greasemonkey, for extending the functionality, simplistic implementation, plenty of resources and a mammoth community support. Client-side JavaScript is very fast as there is no compilation requirement. It gives a richer interface to a website and is highly versatile. JS jobs are some of the most highest paying jobs in this field.

3. Java


Java is a powerful, feature-rich, multi-paradigm, interpreted programming language with a moderate learning curve and high developer productivity. It is a popular choice for developers and has remained so for decades. It is extremely stable and so, many large enterprises have adopted it. Java Programming language is widely used in e-commerce, android apps, scientific applications, financial applications, electronic trading systems, games etc. 

Java has an abundance of open-source libraries and a high degree of platform independence thanks to the JVM feature. Java has an edge because of its automatic memory allocation and garbage collection, stack allocation system and galore of APIs for accomplishing different tasks, such as database connection, networking, utilities, and XML parsing. Although in recent years, Java has lost some of its markets because of the rise of other highly developer-friendly languages, especially Python and JavaScript, it continues to overcome its shortcoming and still remains one the biggest programming languages for the foreseeable future.


4.C#

Microsoft created the object oriented, similar to C programming language named C# (C-Sharp) in 2000. Although criticized in the earlier days because of its similarities to Java, C# has evolved into its own language. It’s is widely used for back end programming, building games (using Unity), in Windows platform as well as on the iOS/Android platform (thanks to Xamarin) and Linux platform. It has a moderate learning curve but the effort is worth it. 

C# provides features such as the ability to work with shared codebases, automatic scalable and updateable components, rich sets of library functions and data types, quick compilation and execution times and more. . It is a component oriented, object oriented programming language that follows a syntax similar to the C programming language. It is fully integrated with the .NET library which makes it ideal for all types of Windows development.


5.C/C++

Probably the most influential programming language in history, C has influenced most languages that came after it, including C++, which was originally intended as an extension of C. They are two of the most used languages ever, almost all low-level systems such as operating systems, file systems etc. are written in C/C++. They are considered as the basic languages that one should learn. The minimum skill for any programmer is to know how to program in C/C++ to get hired. Hence, the C Programming Language is the qualification required for almost all other Programming Languages. They have an easy to moderate learning curve.

C/C++ boasts a galore of compilers and libraries to work with [C++], faster execution time of programs than most programming languages, a great degree of portability [C] and a rich function library [C++]. They run close to the system hardware and hence, offers a low level of abstraction [C/C++] and the programs are more efficient and easy to understand [C/C++]. They have a wide variety of application domains, such as games, GUI applications, and real-time mathematical simulations [C++].

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6.PHP


PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is an HTML-embedded, general purpose web scripting language mainly used to develop server-side web applications.  Though PHP is facing tough competition from Python and JavaScript, the market still needs a large number of PHP developers.

PHP has an abundance of powerful frameworks such as Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter etc. It supports object oriented programming and functional programming paradigms so its easy to get started for making web pages. It has a gigantic community support and a huge ecosystem so it’s easy to get into and get support.

programming languages
source: stackOverflow developer survey 2019


7.Swift

Swift was created by a group of Apple engineers to mainly replace objective-C in the Mac and iOS platforms. Swift programming language is used primarily for iOS and other Apple platforms. Because of the huge popularity of Apple devices, Swift has a high demand in the market in 2020. 

Unlike Objective C programming language, it has no dependencies. It has a multi-paradigm approach. It can also deal with different types of domains. A decade of advancements has allowed Swift to be more expressive with modern enhancements. It makes code sharing better and development process faster when used for both front end and back end development and is very fast as compared to other popular programming languages, such as Object oriented C and Python.


8.Go

Go or Golang was created by tech giant Google in 2012. Not a lot of people are talking about Golang right now but since 2017 it has been going up with demand. Google is making Golang a primary language for upcoming projects. 

Go Programming Language offers cross-platform support which makes it efficient and convenient to use. It is used in distributed networks, complicated back-end technologies, cloud services, etc. Companies such as Google, Twitch, Uber, SendGrid, DailyMotion, Fabric, etc. have developed many applications and APIs, etc. using Golang.


9.Ruby

Ruby programming language was developed in the 1990s by Japanese computer scientist Yukihiro Matsumoto as an object oriented scripting language. Ruby has later evolved into an interpreted, dynamically typed, high-level, multiple-paradigm general purpose programming language. Ruby is implemented in C and offers garbage collection. Although Ruby is not the most talked about languages right now, it has the potential of a bright future .

Ruby has combined some of the best features of programming languages successfully: dynamic, object-oriented, functional, garbage-collected, and concise. Although Ruby itself is not disruptive, its Web development framework Ruby on Rails is probably the most disruptive and influential Server side Web development framework.


10.R


R made its first appearance in 1993 and it’s a programming language and software environment for statistical analysis, reporting, graphics representation and more. Although R language and Python are both used for data science, R is more specific and its main focus is on statistical analysis, whereas Python has a broader use case. 

R programming language is a simple, effective and well developed language which includes conditionals, loops, user defined recursive functions and input and output facilities as well as an effective data handling and storage facility. It boasts a large, coherent and integrated collection of tools for data analysis such as graphical facilities to display either directly at the computer or printing at the papers.


These were the top 10 programming languages to learn in 2021 for developers. Which ones have you learned and which ones are you planning to learn next?

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